A PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND CLINICAL MEDICINEISSN 1727-2378 (Print)         ISSN 2713-2994 (Online)
Ru
En

The Burden of Hepatic Cirrhosis in the Modern World

DOI:10.31550/1727-2378-2021-20-4-21-25
For citation: Tsukanov V.V., Vasyutin A.V., Tonkikh Yu.L. The Burden of Hepatic Cirrhosis in the Modern World. Doctor.Ru. 2021; 20(4): 21–25. (in Russian). DOI: 10.31550/1727-2378-2021-20-4-21-25
28 June 00:00

Objective of the Review: To analyse available information on hepatic cirrhosis (HC) causes and mortality in various locations.

Key Points. Currently, HC is the primary cause of deaths from hepatic diseases. The incidence and causative factors of HC demonstrate marked geographical differences. In North America and Europe, the proportion of alcohol abuse in HC death causes is significantly higher than in Asia, where chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) is the primary cause. Improved prevention and therapy of CVH B and C, improved awareness of obesity and metabolic disorders will result in the situation when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease will soon be the leading causative factor of HC.

Conclusion. Hepatic diseases (especially HC) have been studied very actively all over the world. Therefore, studies of causative factors of hepatic disorders and deaths should be intensified in Russia as well.

Contributions: Tsukanov, V.V. — review design; literature review; text editing; approval of the manuscript for publication; Vasyutin, A.V. — text of the article; Tonkikh, Yu.L. — search for references. 

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interests.

V.V. Tsukanov (Corresponding author) — Scientific and Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North of the Federal Research Centre “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science”; 3-g Partisan Zheleznyakov Str., Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation 660022. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 2529-9513. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9980-2294. E-mail: gastro@impn.ru

A.V. Vasyutin — Scientific and Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North of the Federal Research Centre “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science”; 3-g Partisan Zheleznyakov Str., Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation 660022. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 4075-4538. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6481-3196. E-mail: alexander@kraslan.ru

Yu.L. Tonkikh — Scientific and Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North of the Federal Research Centre “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science”; 3-g Partisan Zheleznyakov Str., Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation 660022. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 3292-9128. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7518-1895. E-mail: tjulia@bk.ru

Доктор.ру

Fig. 1. Incidence of hepatic cirrhosis (HC) in countries of the world [1]

r3_1.jpg

 

Fig. 2. Hepatic cirrhosis (HC) deaths in countries of the world [1]

r3_2.jpg

 Table 1

Structure of causes of hepatic cirrhosis deaths in male in regions of the world, % [1]

t3_1.jpg

Note. ALD: alcoholic liver disease; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

 

Table 2

Global alcohol consumption (2010) [5]

t3_2.jpg
 

 Fig. 3. Hepatic cirrhosis deaths and consumption in Europe [8]

r3_3.jpg

Fig. 4. Fatal hepatic cirrhosis aetiology in Asia [14]

r3_4.jpg

Received: 05.02.2021

Accepted: 25.02.2021

28 June 00:00
REFERENCES
  1. Sepanlou S.G., Safiri S., Bisignano C., Ikuta K.S., Merat S., Saberifiroozi M. et al. The global, regional, and national burden of cirrhosis by cause in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2020; 5(3): 245–66. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30349-8
  2. D'Amico G., Garcia-Tsao G., Pagliaro L. Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: a systematic review of 118 studies. J. Hepatol. 2006; 44(1): 217–31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2005.10.013
  3. Moreau R., Jalan R., Gines P., Pavesi M., Angeli P., Cordoba J. et al. Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a distinct syndrome that develops in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2013; 144(7): 1426–37. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.02.042
  4. Fleming K.M., Aithal G.P., Card T.R., West J. The rate of decompensation and clinical progression of disease in people with cirrhosis: a cohort study. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010; 32(11–12): 1343–50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04473.x
  5. Asrani S.K., Devarbhavi H., Eaton J., Kamath P.S. Burden of liver diseases in the world. J. Hepatol. 2019; 70(1): 151–71. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.09.014
  6. Tsukanov V.V., Vasyutin A.V., Tonkikh Yu.L., Onuchina E.V., Petrunko I.L., Rzhavicheva O.S. et al. The Burden of Hepatic Pathologies in the Modern World. Some Quality Parameters of Management of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis in the Siberian Federal District. Doctor.Ru. 2019; 3(158): 6–10. (in Russian). DOI: 10.31550/1727-2378-2019-158-3-6-10
  7. Hirode G., Saab S., Wong R.J. Trends in the Burden of Chronic Liver Disease Among Hospitalized US Adults. JAMA Netw. Open. 2020; 3(4): e201997. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1997
  8. Pimpin L., Cortez-Pinto H., Negro F., Corbould E., Lazarus J.V., Webber L. et al. Burden of liver disease in Europe: Epidemiology and analysis of risk factors to identify prevention policies. J. Hepatol. 2018; 69(3): 718–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.05.011
  9. Fleming K.M., Aithal G.P., Card T.R., West J. All-cause mortality in people with cirrhosis compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study. Liver Int. 2012; 32(1): 79–84. DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02517.x
  10. Tsukanov V.V., Krasnova M.V., Amel'chugova O.S. Clinical and morphological characteristics of portal gastropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv. 2010; 82(2): 34–7. (in Russian)
  11. Singal A.K., Bataller R., Ahn J., Kamath P.S., Shah V.H. ACG Clinical Guideline: Alcoholic Liver Disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2018; 113(2): 175–94. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2017.469
  12. Crabb D.W., Im G.Y., Szabo G., Mellinger J.L., Lucey M.R. Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcohol-Associated Liver Diseases: 2019 Practice Guidance From the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2020; 71(1): 306–33. DOI: 10.1002/hep.30866
  13. Ivashkin V.T., Maevskaya M.V., Pavlov C.S., Sivolap Y.P., Lunkov V.D., Zharkova M.S. et al. Management of adult patients with alcoholic liver disease: clinical guidelines of the Russian Scientific Liver Society. Rus. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Coloproctol. 2017; 27(6): 20–40. (in Russian). DOI: 10.22416/1382-4376-2017-27-6-20-40
  14. Sarin S.K., Kumar M., Eslam M., George J., Al Mahtab M., Akbar S.M.F. et al. Liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission. Lancet Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2020; 5(2): 167–228. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30342-5
  15. Younossi Z., Tacke F., Arrese M., Chander Sharma B., Mostafa I., Bugianesi E. et al. Global Perspectives on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2019; 69(6): 2672–82. DOI: 10.1002/hep.30251
  16. Younossi Z.M. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease — A global public health perspective. J. Hepatol. 2019; 70(3): 531–44. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.10.033
  17. Zhou J., Zhou F., Wang W., Zhang X.J., Ji Y.X., Zhang P. et al. Epidemiological feature of NAFLD from 1999 to 2018 in China. Hepatology. 2020; 71(5): 1851–64. DOI: 10.1002/hep.31150
  18. Eslam M., Newsome P.N., Sarin S.K., Anstee Q.M., Targher G., Romero-Gomez M. et al. A new definition for metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: An international expert consensus statement. J. Hepatol. 2020; 73(1): 202–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.03.039
  19. Muthiah M.D., Sanyal A.J. Current management of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver Int. 2020; 40(Suppl. 1): S89–95. DOI: 10.1111/liv.14355
  20. Loomba R., Lim J.K., Patton H., El-Serag H.B. AGA Clinical Practice Update on Screening and Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Expert Review. Gastroenterology. 2020; 158(6): 1822–30. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.053
  21. Eslam M., Sanyal A.J., George J.; International Consensus Panel. MAFLD: A Consensus-Driven Proposed Nomenclature for Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease. Gastroenterology. 2020; 158(7): 1999–2014.e1. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.11.312

News

30 November 00:00
A New Issue of Doctor.Ru Internal Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 11 (2021), Published

Find original articles and reviews covering various aspects of cardiology, gastroenterology, endocrinology and pulmonology and the interview with Professor Sergey Stepanovich Yakushin

30 November 00:00
A New Issue of Doctor.Ru Pediatrics, Vol. 20, No. 10 (2021), Published

Find original articles and reviews covering various aspects of pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, cross-disciplinary approach, case studies and the interview with associate member of the Russian Academy of Science Alexander Vasilevich Gorelov

19 November 00:00
A New Issue of Doctor.Ru Neurology Psychiatry, Vol. 20, No. 9 (2021), Published

Find original articles and reviews covering various aspects of neurology, psychiatry and the interview with Professor Oleg Semenovich Levin

20 September 00:00
A New Issue of Doctor.Ru Gynecology, Vol. 20 No. 8 (2021), Published

Find original articles and reviews covering various aspects of reproductive genetics, gynecology, gynecologic oncology, cross-disciplinary approach and the interview with Professor Dmitry Yurievich Trofimov

31 August 13:19
A New Issue of Doctor.Ru Internal Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 7 (2021), Published

Find original articles and reviews covering various aspects of rheumatology, pulmonology and the interview with Professor Alexander Mikhailovich Lila

 

All news