Emotional Modulation of Visual Brain Responses during Classical Conditioning in Patients with Recurrent vs. Bipolar Depression
Objective of the Study: To evaluate the differences in brain activity during a depressive episode between patients with recurrent depression and those with bipolar depression.
Study Design: This was a controlled non-randomized experimental study.
Materials and Methods: The study participants were divided into the following groups: patients with recurrent depression (n = 16; 10 women), patients with bipolar depression (n = 16; eight women), and healthy volunteers (n = 16; nine women). The groups of patients with depression did not differ in their Hamilton Depression Rating Scale or Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores, and these patients were not taking any medications.
The study subjects were asked to sort 160 photos of people and animals, of which 80 were neutral images and 80 showed angry/aggressive people or animals. Simple patterns (cues) were presented two seconds prior to the pictures, and their relationship with the photographs was not explained. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded, and cue-elicited event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were analyzed. Difference waves between the neutral and emotional conditions (emotional modulation, EM) were obtained, and compared pairwise between the groups of participants.
Study Results: These comparisons revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the P100 component in the posterior brain areas, between the patients with depression and the healthy controls. The EM of N150, P220 and P380 components showed both group and stimulus specificity.
Conclusion: Unconscious EM of certain ERP components may be a prospective biomarker for differentiating recurrent and bipolar depression.
E.V. Mnatsakanian — Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences; 5a Butlerov St., Moscow, Russian Federation 117485. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 2627-4145. Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
V.V. Kryukov — Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, a branch of the V.P. Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Russian Ministry of Health; 3 Poteshnaya St., Bldg. 10, Moscow, Russian Federation 107076. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 8688-4159. E-mail: email@example.com
O.S. Antipova — Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, a branch of the V.P. Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Russian Ministry of Health; 3 Poteshnaya St., Bldg. 10, Moscow, Russian Federation 107076. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 6133-1330. Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
V.N. Krasnov — Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, a branch of the V.P. Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Russian Ministry of Health; 3 Poteshnaya St., Bldg. 10, Moscow, Russian Federation 107076. eLIBRARY.RU SPIN: 9644-6970. E-mail: email@example.com
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interests.
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