Wavelet Analysis of Electroencephalogram Recorded During Expectation of Threatening Information in Patients with Recurrent Depression
Study Objective: In patients with recurrent depression (hereafter "patients"), to investigate their specific neurophysiological characteristics associated with their unconscious expectation of seeing threatening visual information compared to those characteristics associated with their expectation of neutral visual stimuli.
Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients who were examined before they started medication therapy and 30 healthy volunteers. A multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while the participants were categorizing stimuli as images of humans or animals. Half of the images were neutral, and the rest were images considered threatening. Warning stimuli were given 2 seconds before the images were shown, and the relationship between these stimuli and the images was not explained to the participants. A wavelet analysis was done for single trials; spectral power was then compared in the participants who were expecting neutral and threatening images; these comparisons were done for two time periods (1,000-1,300 and 1,300-2,000 ms after the onset of the warning stimulus).
Study Results: Differences between responses to neutral and emotion-inducing stimuli (p < 0.01), i.e. emotional modulation (EM) of EEG rhythms, manifested themselves in two ways: 1) an increased power, in some frequency bands, and certain latency ranges when participants were expecting to see angry faces; and 2) as a decreased power when they were expecting to see images of aggressive animals compared to that registered when they were expecting neutral stimuli. Emotional modulation of EEG rhythms was found in the beta and gamma EEG bands, but was almost absent in the alpha and theta bands, except for patients who were expecting to see threatening faces (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: These differences between patients and healthy participants in EM of EEG rhythms may become promising biomarkers of depressive conditions.
E. V. Mnatsakanyan — Moscow Psychiatry Research Institute, Affiliate of the V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Drug Abuse, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
M. G. Sharaev — Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Lomonosov Moscow State University. E-mail: email@example.com
V. V. Kryukov — Moscow Psychiatry Research Institute, Affiliate of the V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Drug Abuse, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
O. S. Antipova — Moscow Psychiatry Research Institute, Affiliate of the V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Drug Abuse, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. E-mail: email@example.com
V. N. Krasnov — Moscow Psychiatry Research Institute, Affiliate of the V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Drug Abuse, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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